Glossary U.S. Courts Common Legal Terms Definitions
Arbitration: A hearing and determination of a dispute by an impartial referee agreed to by both parties The act of deciding as an arbiter; giving authoritative judgment. Mandatory binding arbitration is a process by which parties “agree” to have a third party arbitrator (single arbitrator or a panel), instead of a jury or judge, resolve a dispute. Arbitrators are not required to have any legal training and they need not follow the law. Warning! Warning!
Arbiter: Someone with the power to settle matters at will. Someone chosen to judge and decide a disputed issue.
Arbitration Clause is Signing Away Your Right to Sue. Waiving your right to sue. Warning!
Accused: formally charged but not yet tried for committing a crime; the person who has been charged may also be called the defendant. Evidence
Acquittal: a judgment of court, based on the decision of either a jury or a judge, that a person accused is not guilty of the crime for which he has been tried. Acquittal More
ADA: Assistant district attorney. An assistant district attorney works for the elected District Attorney. An ADA will review and prosecute cases as assigned. ADA's meet with law enforcement, witnesses, and victims. They generally have authority to dispose of those cases assigned to them.
Adjournment: putting off or postponing business or a session of court until another time or place.
Adjudication: the judicial decision that ends a criminal proceeding by a judgment of acquittal, conviction, or dismissal of the case.
Affidavit: a written statement that the writer swears is true.
Aggravating Factors: factors that make a crime worse than most similar crimes. Aggravating factors are often defined by law and include such things as: victim very old, gang related, done for hire, especially cruel, defendant does not support his family, or took advantage of a position of trust.
Aggravated Range: When a person is sentenced, this indicates a sentence that is more severe than the “presumed” sentence for a given crime. A defendant may receive more time if the judge finds aggravating factors. If no aggravating factors are found, the sentence will come from either the “presumptive” or “mitigated” range.
Alleged: said to be true, but not yet proven to be true; until the trial is over, the crime may be called the “alleged crime.”
Appeal: a request by either the defense or the prosecution that a higher court review the results of a decision on certain motions or in a completed trial. This can be an appeal from superior court to an appeals court, or an appeal from district court to superior court for a trial.
Arraignment: to bring a prisoner before a judge to ask how he pleads to the charges against him.
Arrest warrant: A written order issued by the District court or magistrate including a statement of the crime of which the person to be arrested is accused, and directing that the person be arrested and held to answer the accusation before a magistrate or other judge. Arraignment (wiki)
Assailant: person identified as the attacker.
Bail: an amount of money set by the court that allows a person charged with a crime to be released from custody. The purpose of bail is to insure that the offender will return to court.
Bailiff: a uniformed officer who keeps order in the courtroom.
Barratry: The act of repeated legal actions for the purpose of harassment. Barratry (Wiki)
Bench: how the judge is sometimes referred to as in “the bench;” also where the judge sits during the proceedings.
Bench Warrant: an order issued by a judge to bring to court an accused person who has been released before trial and does not return to court when ordered to do so; or a witness who has failed to appear when ordered to do so.
Beyond a Reasonable Doubt: the degree of proof needed for a jury or judge to convict an accused person of a crime. Terry Stop
Bond: in criminal court, a term meaning the same thing as “bail;” generally a certificate or evidence of a debt.
Bond Forfeiture: a hearing to determine if the bond on a defendant is to be forfeited after a defendant fails to show for court. Forfeited bond money goes to the public schools.
Bondsman: (also Bail Bondsman) a licensed person or person working for a licensed company, who will post bond for a defendant upon payment of a fee. The fee is generally fifteen per cent (15%) of the bond.
Booking: an official police record of the arrest of a person accused of committing a crime which identifies the accused, the time and place of arrest, the arresting authority, and the reason for the arrest.
Calendar: a document listing cases for hearing before a court. Calendars may be for district court, superior court, motions, forfeitures, criminal docket management, plea, or trials.
Capital Case: This is a first-degree murder case in which the jury can impose either a life sentence or the death penalty. If a person is guilty of first-degree murder and there are any statutory aggravating factors then the State has to seek the death penalty.
Charge: the formal accusation filed by the prosecutor’s office that a specific person has committed a specific crime; the filing may be called “pressing charges.”
Circumstantial Evidence (Wiki)
Clerk of Court: an officer of a court of justice who has charge of the clerical part of its business -- who keeps its records and seal, issues process, enters judgments and orders, gives certified copies from the records, et cetera.
Commitment: the warrant or order by which a court or magistrate directs an officer to take a person to prison.
Complaint: a term in civil cases that signifies a filing of a suit. In criminal court, the complaint is the reporting of a crime to authorities. Complaint (Wiki)
Concurrent Sentence: running together; when two or more sentences are served at the same time. Opposite of consecutive sentence.
Consecutive Sentence: successive; succeeding one another in regular order; one sentence beginning at the completion of another.
Contest: To make the subject of dispute, contention, or litigation. Will Contest
Continuance: postponement of a court hearing; putting it off until another day.
Criminal Court: a court that hears cases concerned with the alleged violation of criminal law.
Criminal Justice System: the government agencies charged with law enforcement, prosecution of alleged violations of the criminal law, the court hearing of charges against the accused, and the punishment and supervision of those convicted.
Criminal Law: the law whose violation is considered an offense against the state and is punishable upon conviction by imprisonment and other penalties for adult offenders and by action of a juvenile court for juvenile offenders.
Cross Examination: the examination of a witness by the party opposed to the one who produced him during a trial or hearing, or upon taking a deposition.
DA: Commonly refers to an attorney for the community elected by the people in his district to represent the interests of the general public, including crime victims, in court proceedings against people accused of committing crimes. Other jurisdictions use other terms: prosecutor, such as U.S. Attorney (a federal prosecutor), solicitor, or state’s attorney.
Defendant: a person who has been formally charged with committing a crime; the person accused of a crime.
Defense Attorney: the lawyer who represents the defendant in legal proceedings. Victims are usually not required to speak with defense attorneys except in court, but may do so if they choose.
Deferred Sentence: defendant enters a guilty plea, receives probation for a certain amount of time, and gives up the right to trial. The DA dismisses the case if the probation is completed successfully.
Deposed: Testify to or give (evidence) on oath, typically in a written statement.
Direct Examination: the first interrogation or examination of a witness during trial by the party on whose behalf he is called.
Discovery: Process by which the DA provides to a Defense Attorney information gathered during the investigation of a felony; the ascertainment of that which was previously unknown.
Dismissal: a decision by the prosecutor or other judicial officer to end a case for legal or other reasons.
Disposition: the final judicial decision which ends a criminal proceeding by a judgment of acquittal or dismissal, or which states the sentence if the accused is convicted.
District Attorney: Commonly refers to an official elected by the people of the community in his/her district to represent the interests of the general public, including crime victims, in court proceedings against people accused of committing crimes. Some jurisdictions use other terms: such as prosecutor, U.S. Attorney (a federal prosecutor), solicitor, or state’s attorney.
District Attorney’s Report: A report that is prepared by law enforcement in felony cases to inform the District Attorney what the facts are in a case. This is also known as a “felony report.”
District Court: where misdemeanor cases are heard concerning the violation of state statutes.
Double Jeopardy: putting a person on trial more than once for the same offense; double jeopardy is forbidden by the U.S. Constitution.
Due Process: The administration of justice according to established rules and principles; based on the principle that a person cannot be deprived of life or liberty or property without appropriate legal procedures and safeguards. Due Process
Electronic House Arrest: Defendants are placed on supervised probation and monitored electronically twenty-four hours a day. Defendants on this program must remain in their homes when not at their employment or receiving treatment. A response team responds to violations twenty-four hours a day.
Endorsement of Witnesses: all prosecution witnesses must be named.
Enhanced Intensive Probation: Intensive probation with the added requirement of electronic monitoring of the defendant similar to that used in electronic house arrest.
Exculpatory: clearing or tending to clear from alleged fault or guilt.
Ex parte: on one side only, done for one party.
Expert witness: Woman/man of a science educated in the art, or persons possessing special or peculiar knowledge acquired from practical experience. Expert witness (wiki) Experts?
Cross-Examination Direct Examination Allegation False Accusations Hearsay
Beyond Reasonable Doubt Legal Burden of Proof Circumstantial Evidence (wiki)
Probable Cause Suspicion (emotion) Reasonable Suspicion Reasonable Doubt
Eye Witness Flaws Bias Jury Instructions
"Specific Facts that can be expressed using words with rational inferences from those facts"
Extradition: the surrender by one state to another of an individual accused or convicted of an offense outside its own territory and within the territorial jurisdiction of the other.
Evidence: testimony and objects used to prove statements made by the victim and the accused.
Direct Evidence False Evidence
Failure to Appear (FTA): defendant does not appear for court, order for arrest is issued.
Felony: a crime of graver or more atrocious nature than those designated as misdemeanors, carrying more potential jail time for an offender.
Fugitive: one who flees or escapes from some duty or penalty.
Guilty: Guilt (Law)
Grand Jury: a grand jury is composed of eighteen citizens meet in felony cases to determine whether a crime probably occurred and whether the defendant probably committed the crime. If twelve of the eighteen jurors, agree then they return a true bill of indictment. The office of the District Attorney prepares indictments.
Habeas Corpus: The civil right to obtain a writ of habeas corpus as protection against illegal imprisonment. A writ ordering a prisoner to be brought before a judge. Habeas Corpus (wiki)
Writ: (law) a legal document issued by a court or judicial officer.
Hung Jury: a jury whose members cannot agree whether the accused is guilty or not; mistrial.
Impeach: to discredit the truthfulness of a witness.
Indictment: a formal written accusation, made by a grand jury after submission by the prosecutor and filed in a court, alleging that a specific person committed a specific crime. The office of the District Attorney prepares indictments.
Indigent: an accused person who has been found by the court to be too poor to pay for his/her own attorney.
Infraction: minor violations of the law that do not rise to the level of misdemeanor. Driving offense make up the bulk of charges designated as infractions.
Innocent: Free from guilt; Free from legal fault. This should not be confused with the term “not guilty.” Not guilty is a verdict by a judge or a jury that a person accused of a crime did not commit it or that there is not enough evidence to prove beyond a reasonable doubt that the accused committed the crime.
Miscarriage of Justice False Criminal Allegations False Accusation Chilling Effect
Malicious Prosecution Vexatious Litigation Legal Threat Lawsuit against Public Participation
Abuse of Process
Intensive Probation: Defendants are on supervised probation, have curfews, and see probation officer at least once a week.
Investigation: the gathering of evidence by law-enforcement officials (and in some cases prosecutors) for presentation to a grand jury or in a court, to prove that the accused did commit the crime.
Jail: a confinement facility. Technically, a jail is administered by a local law-enforcement agency for adults and sometimes juveniles who have been accused of committing a crime but whose trials are not yet over, and persons who have been convicted and sentenced to
imprisonment for one year or less.
Judge: a judicial officer who has been elected or appointed to preside over a court of law. Judges
Judgment: a court’s final determination of the rights and obligations of the parties in a case. This may be in answer to a motion or trial.
Jury: a group of citizens who decide whether the accused is guilty or not. They are selected by law and sworn to determine certain facts by listening to testimony in order to reach a decision as to guilt or innocence. Hung Jury (wiki) Jury Instructions
Jury Selection: the process by which the judge, the prosecutor, and the defense attorney screen citizens who have been called to jury duty to determine if they will hear the evidence and decide guilt or innocence in a particular trial.
Jury Nullification: Occurs in a trial when a jury acquits a defendant they believe to be guilty of the charges against them. This may occur when members of the jury disagree with the law the defendant has been charged with breaking, or believe that the law should not be applied in that particular case. A jury can similarly convict a defendant on the ground of disagreement with an existing law, even if no law is broken (although in jurisdictions with double jeopardy rules, a conviction can be overturned on appeal, but an acquittal cannot). Jury Nullification (wiki)
Juvenile: a person accused of an offense who is too young at the time of the alleged offense to be subject to criminal court proceedings as an adult and is therefore handled in the juvenile justice system.
Magistrate: person who can issue warrants when a person is accused of a crime. The are clothed with power as a public civil officer and have additional duties such as setting bond, hearing small claims, and accepting payment for certain infractions and misdemeanors.
Misdemeanor: offenses lower than felonies and generally those punishable by fine or imprisonment otherwise than in penitentiary. These crimes are generally punishable by no more than 150 days in jail.
Mitigating Factor: a factor that make a crime less deserving of punishment than most similar crimes. Mitigating factors are often defined by law and include such things as: defendant was very young; the person was honorably discharged from the armed forces,
Not Guilty: a verdict by a judge or a jury that a person accused of a crime did not commit it or that there is not enough evidence to prove beyond a reasonable doubt that the accused committed the crime. Warning: Please be aware that Pleading Guilty gives up Certain Rights.
Not guilty plea: a formal response by a person accused of committing a specific crime in which the accused says that the charges are not true and he did not commit the crime.
No Contest: A no-contest plea. Latin for "I do not wish to contend" The defendant neither admits nor disputes a charge has the same immediate effect as a guilty plea, and is often offered as a part of a
plea bargain. Nolo Contendere
Notice: a written order to appear in court at a certain time and place.
Offender: an adult who has been convicted of a crime.
Offense: a crime; technically, in some jurisdictions, only the most minor crimes are called offenses.
Opening statement: an outline of anticipated proof. Its purpose is to advise the jury prior to testimony of the facts relied upon and of issues involved; and to give the jury a general picture of the facts and the situations so that the jury will be able to understand the evidence.
Order of Arrest: an order for the arrest of a defendant following the filing of charges or failure to appear when required by the court.
Parole: the conditional release of a convicted offender from a confinement facility before the end of his sentence with requirements for the offender’s behavior set and supervised by a parole agency.
Penitentiary: a state or federal prison.
Perjury: deliberate false testimony under oath involving a material fact.
Perpetrator: a person who actually commits a crime.
Personal Recognizance: the promise of an accused person to the court that he will return to court when ordered to do so; given in exchange for release before and during his trial.
Petition: a document filed in juvenile court alleging that a juvenile should come under the jurisdiction of the juvenile court for some offense or asking that the juvenile be transferred to criminal court for prosecution as an adult.
Plea: a defendant’s formal answer in court to the charge that he has committed a crime. Some possible pleas include: guilty, not guilty, no contest, or not guilty by reason of insanity. Plea
Plea Bargain (agreement): a plea agreed to by a defendant and the prosecutor; a negotiated plea that may set out exact terms relating to punishment and disposition of a case. Plea Bargain (wiki)
Pre-Sentence Investigation (PSI): report compiled by the Probation Department after plea and before sentencing to make sentencing recommendations to the judge.
Probation: conditional freedom granted to an offender by the court after conviction or guilty plea with requirements for the offender’s behavior set and supervised by the court.
Probation Hearing: a hearing before a judge to review the performance of a defendant while on probation. Hearings are not generally held unless a probationer has violated some term of their probationary sentence.
Prosecutor: an attorney for the community elected by the voters of a district to represent the interests of the general public, including crime victims, in court proceedings against people accused of committing crimes. Some jurisdictions use other terms for the prosecutor, such as U.S. Attorney (a federal prosecutor), district attorney, or state’s attorney.
Public Defender: an attorney employed by a government agency to represent defendants who are unable to hire private counsel.
Remand: to send back to a lower court. Typically refers to a situation where a Defendant in Superior Court asks to return a misdemeanor conviction to District Court for compliance with the judgment of that court.
Restitution: State law allows the prosecutor to request restitution (repayment for the victim’s losses) as part of the sentence of any defendant who is found guilty of a crime. Reimbursable losses include out-of-pocket expenses (such as repair costs, medical bills, and stolen property) which have not previously been covered.
Retainer: the fee a defendant pays for an attorney to represent him.
Rights of the Defendant: the powers and privileges which are constitutionally guaranteed to any person arrested and accused of committing a crime including: the right to remain silent; the right to an attorney at all stages of the proceedings; the right to a court-appointed attorney if the defendant does not have the financial means to hire her/his own counsel; the right to release on reasonable bail; the right to a speedy public trial before a jury or judge; the right to the process of the court to subpoena and produce witnesses; the right to see, hear and question the witnesses during the trial; and the right not to incriminate himself/herself.
Search Warrant: an order in writing, issued by a judge or magistrate, in the name of the state, directed to a sheriff, or other officer, commanding him to search a specific house, shop, or other premises, for specific property related to a crime.
Statute: an act of the legislature declaring, commanding, or prohibiting something. A law.
Subpoena: a court paper requesting the appearance of a witness or documents to be present at a court proceeding.
Summons: a citation requiring a defendant to appear in court to answer a suit to which has been brought against him. Summons (wiki) Case Citation Citation Citation
Superior Court: Courts Judges
Suspect: a person who is believed by criminal justice officials to be one who may have committed a specific crime, but who has not been arrested or formally charged. Once arrested a suspect is called a defendant.
Testimony: statements made in court by people who have sworn or affirmed to tell the truth.
Transcript: In court it is a verbatim writing of what was said in court during a trial, or a paper writing setting out terms of a plea taken from a defendant. Also a copy of an original writing or deed.
Trial: an examination of issues of fact and law before a judge and sometimes a jury at which evidence is presented to determine whether or not the accused person is guilty of committing a specific crime. Right to a Fair Trial
Traffic Court: an administrative court that hears only traffic matters, usually uncontested.
U.S. Attorney: a federal prosecutor.
Venue: a neighborhood, place, or county in which an injury or crime was done; or where a hearing/trial is held.
Verdict: the decision of a judge or jury at the end of a trial that the accused defendant is either guilty or not guilty.
Victim Compensation Program: a program of the state designed to provide compensation to victims of certain crimes for their damages and expenses. Initial application for funds is generally made through the office of the District Attorney through the use victim impact statements.
Victim Impact Statement: a form provided to allow victims of crime to provide the court with their comments about the impact the crime had on them.
Victim Witness Assistant: Employees of the District Attorney's Office that are assigned to provide information and assistance to the victims of crime. They act as liaison between the victim and the Assistant District Attorney assigned to a case.
Waiver: the intentional or voluntary relinquishment of a known right.
Warrant: see arrest warrant and bench warrant.
Witness: a person who has directly seen an event, such as a crime or who has other knowledge that is related to a court case; or some thing, such as a piece of physical evidence.
Writ of Execution: a writ to put in force the judgment of decree of a court.
The biggest reason for people to sue someone is when you know that the lawsuit will help stop this person, or persons, from victimizing other people, and this is not about Money, this is about correcting a destructive flaw, no one should have the right to kill people or have the right to cause suffering of other people. So if someone manipulates or coerces you into an action that is illogical and possibly destructive, then that's when a lawsuit and justice is necessary. And you can't fight
evil with evil or money with money, you have to fight injustice with justice, and you want to make sure that not only do the laws change, but more importantly, that people change, and also that everything learned in the lawsuit is thoroughly documented so that future generations are not
exploited by the same kind of ignorance that we are currently suffering from today. Of course I'm more interested in educating people then I am suing people, But if I feel that a legal action could also be used as a learning platform and a public classroom with lessons on activism, politics, money and human behavior, then a lawsuit would be even more effective, because it not only attains to end the abuse, it also attains to make more people aware of this abuse. this way ignorance doesn't have a place to hide, so ignorance will gradually just fade away and become less and less of a burden on society. We have known for some time that Knowledge is our most valuable resource and our most powerful tool for change, you can almost go as far as saying that Learning is God, or at the least, that learning is something of great importance. Vexatious Litigation
I'm wondering when someone will sue the U.S. Government for Criminal Negligence?
Federal Tort Claims Act
To Be a Judge
Justices are appointed by the president and are subject to confirmation by the Senate. They serve a life term. There are currently eight Associate Justices on the Supreme Court and one Chief Justice of the United States. About Federal Judges
Chief Justice of the United States: The Chief Justice is appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate. The Chief Justice may be “promoted” from the status of Associate Justice, or may be a new appointment to the Court. He or she serves a life term just like the other Justices of the Supreme Court. The Chief Justice also serves as the head of the judicial branch of the federal government, and acts as the judge in impeachment cases involving the president and vice president.
How to Become a Judge Judge (wiki) Federal Judgeships Tribunal (wiki)
Grand Jury Grand Juries in the U.S.
John Oliver: Elected Judges (HBO) (youtube)
The vast majority of US judges are elected, forcing many judges to pander to the electorate and accept campaign money in order to keep their jobs. This seems slightly troubling…
Sentencing General Principles Seven Sentencing Principles Principles of Sentencing
Evidence Based Practices Sentencing Criminal Offenders Right to a Fair Trial Prisons
Court’s Procedural Fairness Practices Procedural Justice Assessments
The rules lead to fair treatment when decisions are being made, and an honest explanation for how decisions are made. The rules and procedures are not always fair consistently for all people and for all situations, I need the real reasons.
"Judges can be corrupted, so how do you guarantee fairness, you can't, for now" Punishment
28 U.S. Code § 176 - Removal from office
Methods of Judicial Selection Removal of Judges
Jury members cannot consult outside texts or resources , even dictionaries, during deliberation. The Place: All federal and state courts.
The Reason: Even if they don’t know the meaning of a word, juries must confine their knowledge of a
case to what’s presented in court. While dictionaries might seem like a harmless text, most courts have ruled that consulting one is in fact misconduct because it could color a jury’s decision. Take the word “malice.” Merriam-Webster defines it as “a desire to cause harm to another person,” while jury instructions have defined it as “that condition of mind that prompts a person to intentionally inflict damage without just cause, excuse, or justification.”
The Repercussions: If a jury member does use a dictionary, it doesn’t necessarily mean the case will be retried; attorneys have to prove that the definition inappropriately swayed the decision. There have been several cases in which looking up everything from “assault” to “intent” to “wanton” wasn’t enough to warrant overturning a jury’s ruling. But judges in other cases have found that a jury’s use of a dictionary or encyclopedia was enough reason to do it all over again. In 2007, courts overturned a Kentucky man’s rape conviction when it was discovered his jury had looked up the definition of “rape” in the dictionary. Webster and Oxford don’t require “penetration” for something to be considered rape. Kentucky law does. (this sounds really stupid)
Why do Judges Instruct Jurors?
Judges instruct jurors not to listen to the radio or watch television when they are a Juror during a trial. Why? What's the point? Especially when Judges can't stop a corrupt lawyer from saying the same things to jurors in court? Even though a judge can stricken the comments from the record, the judge cannot erase it from the minds of the jurors, so what's the point? You would be better off teaching jurors how not to be manipulated by misinformation and propaganda? Whether it's from our corrupted media, or corrupted lawyers. Jury Instructions (wiki) Instructions to the Jury
Eye Witness Memory Flaws Experts? Expert Testimony
"When you judge another, you do not define them, you define yourself."
Court (wiki) Courts of Appeals (wiki) Appellate Court (wiki) Courtroom Terminology
Superior Court: where most felony cases are heard concerning violation of state statutes.
Superior Court (wiki)
Supreme Court: a court of higher powers and extensive jurisdiction; our state has supreme court and the United States has a Supreme Court.
The Superior court only sees 1% of all cases submitted. That means we need more Courts....
Each year, the court receives approximately 9,000–10,000 petitions for Certiorari, of which less than
1% (approximately 80–100), are granted plenary review with oral arguments, and an additional 50 to 60 are disposed of without plenary review. Supreme Court Case Selections Act
Procedures of the Supreme Court of the United States Dispute Resolution
Judiciary Act of 1925 also known as the Judge's Bill or Certiorari Act, was an act of the United States Congress that sought to reduce the workload of the Supreme Court of the United States.
Reduce the workload for 9 people is ok, but when you have thousands of cases, you need to hire more people. Multiple supreme courts. Limiting the number of cases for review is reckless and corrupt.
Certiorari is a formal written order seeking judicial review. It is issued by a superior court, directing an inferior court, tribunal, or other public authority to send the record of a proceeding for review.
Judicial Review is the doctrine under which legislative and executive actions are subject to review by the judiciary.
Judiciary is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state.
Jurisdiction is the practical authority granted to a legal body to administer justice within a defined area of responsibility.